Почетна / Цвеќарство / Петунија- Petunia sp.

Петунија- Petunia sp.

Петунија е род од 35 видови на цветни растенија со потекло од  Јужна Америка и спаѓа во фамилија Solanacae. Името го добила од францускиот збор “petun” што означува тутун. Повеќето растенија што ги сретнува во градините се хибриди (Petunia × hybridа).

 

Потекло

Потеклото на  P. × hybrida се верува дека е од хибридизацијата настаната помеѓу P. axillaris (големата бела петунија) и  P. integrifolia (виолетовата петунија).

Класификација

Некои ботаничари го сместуваат родот Calibrachoa во родот Petunia. Во ботаничката класификација тутунот, доматот,компирот и петунијата се во иста фамилија Solanaceae.Петуниите генерално се опрашуваат со инсекти, со исклучок на P. exserta, која е многу редок вид на со црвена боја и се опрашува со колибри. Повеќето петунии се диплоиди со 14 хромозоми.

Одгледување

Семето од петунија ‘рти за 5-15 дена. Петуниите можат дa толерираат релативно лоши услови и топла клима. Потребни им се минимум 5 часа сончева светлина секој ден. Тие растат и во услови на недоволна влажност, како и во влажна почва. Расадот се добива од семе. Треба да се наводнуваат еднаш во 2-5 дена, а во посуви региони и секој ден. Сувите цветови и гранчиња треба да се отстрануваат за повеќе да цвета. Максималниот раст го достигнуваат во доцна  пролет. Се препорачува ѓубрење еднаш месечно и се одгледуваат во висечки саксии.

Категории

Грандифлора

Овој вид на петунија има најголеми цветови и до 10 cm во дијаметар. Од сите петунии, тие имаат најширок спектар на бои и форми, но лесно може да се оштетат од дожд. Има 4 видови на грандифлора и се класифицирани по бојата: ‘Daddy Series’ (нијанси на розово и виолетово), ‘Merlin Blue Morn’ (сини и бели), ‘Supercascade Series’ (повеќе бои) and ‘Ultra Series’ (повеќе бои, вклучувајќи ги и двобојните). 

 

Сл.1 Petunia Grandiflora ‘Daddy Series’

 

 

Сл.2 Petunia Grandiflora ‘Merlin Blue Morn’

 

Сл.3 Petunia Grandiflora ‘Supercascade Series’

 

Сл.4 Petunia Grandiflora ‘Ultra Series’

 

Хеџифлора (ползечки)

Хеџифлора или ползечки петунии (уште нарекувани уште и покривка на земјата) се карактеризираат со нивната висина која е само 15 cm, но тие многу се шират и до 120 cm. Тие можат да покријат голема површина, доколку правилно се наводнуваат и ѓубрат. ‘Purple Wave’ е првата сорта и расте во висина од 10 cm. ‘Tidal Wave’ е уште една сорта, но повисока од 40- 55 cm. ‘Surfinia’ е сорта на петунија која се размножува со резници и  ‘Opera Supreme’ е сорта со големи цветови.

 

Сл.5 Petunia Hedgiflora ‘Tidal Wave’

 

Сл.6 Petunia Hedgiflora ‘Opera Supreme’

Мултифлора

Овие петунии имаат цветови со големина од 5 cm во дијаметар, не се оштетуваат лесно од дожд и се потолерантни на сончева светлина. Тука спаѓаат сортите ‘Carpet Series “(повеќе бои) и ‘Madness Series’ (повеќе бои). Тие брзо се шират и се идеални за одгледување во висечки саксии.

 

Сл.6 Petunia Multiflora ‘Carpet Series’

 

Сл.7 Petunia Multiflora ‘Madness Series’

 

Милифлора

Милифлора се најмалите петунии, со дијаметар 2,5 cm. Овие петунии обично се мешаат со други растенија во саксии или садат во цветни леи и покрај патеките. Може да се најдат како ‘Fantasy Series’ (црвени, виолетови и розови) и ‘Supertunia Mini Series’ (сини, розови и бели). Тие се потолерантни на лоши услови во споредба со грандифлора и мултифлора.

 

Сл.8 Petunia Mulliflora ‘Fantasy Series’

Автор: www.agri.mk

 

 

 

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