Почетна / Вести Свет / Наместо тутун, може да се сади оригано

Наместо тутун, може да се сади оригано

Во Турција, поради ограничувањата за производство на тутун, се решиле површините да ги искористат за садење култивирано диво оригано и денес земјата е еден од поголемите извозници на оваа култура, што може да се искористи и во Македонија, која почна да се соочува со ограничување на површините под тутун.

 

Ако Македонија се соочи со потребата од намалување на површините засадени со тутун, а кое е евидентно уште годинава, бидејќи се склучени договори за откуп на 26.000 тони, а засадени се површини од кои ќе се добијат 32.000 тони, тутунопроизводителите нека се преориентираат на садење оригано. Kако што направија во Турција, која пред повеќе години се соочи со ограничувањето на производството на тутун наметнато од САД и бараше алтернатива што да се сади на тие површини. Одлучија да почнат да ја одгледуваат оваа култура и денес во САД годишно извезуваат 60.000 тони сува материја. Ова го порачува Kујтим Хаџи Хамза, сопственик на земјоделската задруга „Тока“, која во Македонија почна да одгледува диво оригано, кое потоа се извезува во Турција, а оттаму заминува преку океанот. 

Македонија има свое оригано, познато како мајчина душичка (оригано вулгарис), кое е едно од 38 вида оригано што постојат во светот. Но сега се произведува и ориганум онитeс или диво оригано, кое во Турција растело во природата, а кое потоа било култивирано и почнало негово организирано производство.

Хаџи Хамза, кој во 1989 година завршил Правен факултет во Скопје, решил да замине во Турција, каде што прво почнал да се занимава со одгледување кокошки и дошол до фарма од 35.000 бројлери во еден турнус и 18.200 несилки. Случајна средба со претставници на фирма од Холандија, која утврдила дека микробиолошките болести кај домашните животни можат да се уништат со користење масло од оригано, кое дејствува како антибиотик, му ја променила насоката на работата.

– Решивме прво да се обидеме да ги снабдуваме со оригано од природата, но бидејќи беа потребни големи количини, направивме обид семето од ориганум онитeс да го симнеме од планините и да го култивираме. И се покажа како успешно, така што за 6 години станавме и производители и откупувачи на оваа билка. Ако почнавме со 40 ха, сега под оригано имаме површина од 6000 ха, односно 2.540 кооперанти што го садат, косат и сушат, а ние потоа го откупуваме и извезуваме – вели Хаџи Хамза.

Од лани ова оригано почна да се сади и во Македонија и за 10 месеци производството е зголемено за 950 отсто.

– Бидејќи сметам дека одгледувањето на ова растение може значително да придонесе за подигање на стандардот, особено на населението во руралните средини, решив да пробам и со производство во Македонија, да видам како ќе реагира кај нас. И добивме одлични резултати. Со моите ортаци зедов 30.000 квадрати во близина на Скопје, кои беа прекриени со шут. Ја исчистивме површината, донесовме 15.000 кубици еколошка земја, направивме бунар и почнавме во 2009 година со тоа што ги формиравме земјоделската задруга „Тока“ и фирмата „Тера органика“ – едната за производство и склучување договори со кооперантите и другата за извоз – објаснува Хаџи Хамза.

Сега задругата „Тока“, чија обврска е да обезбеди расад за кооперантите што склучуваат договори за договорно производство и да го откупи ориганото од нив, има 29 кооперанти од речиси сите краишта на земјата, а ориганото се одгледува на површина од 140 хектари. „Тера органика“, пак, годинава очекува да откупи 250 до 300 тони и да ги извезе во Турција, а оттаму ориганото ќе оди за САД. Имено, за директен извоз се потребни најмалку 500 тони сува материја и ако се обезбеди таа количина, ќе биде можен директен извоз на ориганото како македонски производ, а можно е да се инвестира и во изградба на погон за дестилација за да се добива масло од оригано.

Идејата на задругата е да се искористат поволностите што ги дава државата за задругарството, каде што во случај на здружување на најмалку 19 индивидуални производители што имаат план за производство, се добиваат до 90 отсто субвенции за покривање на трошоците. За таа цел „Тока“ има под закуп 100 хектари во Ропотово, кои ќе им се поделат на 20 кооперанти што немаат земја, а сакаат да ја одгледуваат оваа култура. Се планира да се направи едукативен центар, де се постават и пчелни семејства за добивање чист мед од оригано, а субвенциите ќе се искористат за плаќање на наемот, за набавка на потребен возен парк и ќе се добие многу поголемо производство, кое ќе може да се извезува директно од Македонија.

3.000 ЕВРА ЌАР ОД ЕДЕН ХЕКТАР

За одгледување оригано на 1 ха, потребни се 80.000 садници, кои чинат 1.500 евра, а уште околу 500 евра се потребни за орање, плевење и слични операции, објаснува Хаџи Хамза. Се сади еднаш, а се собира седум години. Расадот се сади во октомври со исти машини со кои се сади тутунот или пиперот, што се завршува за еден ден. Во април насадот мора да се исплеви, но рачно, односно без употреба на пестициди и хербициди, бидејќи се работи за органско производство. Ориганото цути при крајот на јуни, по што се коси со линеарна косилка, се суши ден-два и потоа со специјална машина се одвојуваат цветовите и листовите, кои се користат. Од задругата на самото место земаат примерок за да се провери да не е прскано, се мери и се откупува по цена од 1 евро за килограм. Од еден хектар можат да се добијат 3 тони сува материја, односно околу 3.000 евра. А тоа значи дека во првата година ќе се покрие инвестицијата и уште нешто ќе остане како заработка, а следните шест години останува чист ќар.

ЛЕКОВИТИ СВОЈСТВА

– Ориганото кај нас до неодамна се користеше главно во кулинарството, но во последно време може да се најде по аптеките и масло од оригано, што особено ме радува, бидејќи растението, кое е познато 3.000 години, има многу лековити својства и затоа е толку барано во странство – вели Хаџи Хамза.

Тој објаснува дека во САД откупуваат с` што е од оригано – сува материја, масло, сок од оригано, а една тегла мед од 800 грама, на пример, чини 30 долари.

При дестилацијата, пак, освен што се добива маслото, од комињето, со понатамошна преработка можат да се добијат различни состојки за фармацијата или да се користи како чај.

Извор: dnevnik.mk

 

 

 

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