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Краставица- Cucumis sativus

Потекло

Краставицата спаѓа во фамилија Cucurbitaceae, потекнува од влажните делови на Индија. Во Европа е донесена преку Египет и Грција. Краставицата содржи повеќе јаболкова киселина од лимунска и тоа му го дава карактеристичниот вкус. 

 

Морфологија

Таа едногодишно тревесто растение со разгрането стебло кое е покриено со влакненца.  Коренот е добро развиен, но страничните корени повеќе се разгрануваат во ширина, а не во длабочина. Листот е сплоснат, со долга дршка, три или петоделен, со светло до темно зелена боја, покриен по површината со остри влакненца. Кај краставиците разликуваме машки цветови кои имаат кратки цветни дршки и обично се јавуваат во групи, додека женските се поединечни и крупни со изразен плодник. Цветовите се петоделни со жолта боја. Плодот е сочна бобинка со цилиндричен облик и брадавичести израстоци. На тие израстоци има бели или црни влакненца или боцки. Семето е сместено во три комори во плодот. Денес во светот постојат голем број на видови и сорти на краставици за различни видови на производство ( на отворено, во заштитени простори), како и за различна употреба (салатери и корнишони за конзервирање). Растението има релативно краток вегетациски период, а покрај употребата во исхраната многу е ценета и во фармацевтската индустрија.

Одгледување

Краставицата е топлољубиво растение. За ‘ртење е потребна температура од 15 ⁰С, а оптимална температура за раст е околу 25⁰С. Нема голема потреба за сончева светлина и затоа успешно се одгледува во текот на зимата во пластеници и стакленици, како и покрај високи растенија кои прават сенка. Има потреба од голема влажност на почвата и воздухот и затоа најдобри резултати се постигнуваат доколку се одгледуваат меѓу високи растенија (на пр. пченка) кои создаваат поволна микроклима. Краставицата е осетлива на ветрови и недостаток на вода.

Одлично реагира на ѓубрење, од минералните ѓубрива треба да се додава 80-100 kg/ha N, 80 kg/ha P и 120 kh K во облик на K-сулфат.

Краставицата се одгледува на средни и тешки почви со неутрална рН и добри водно -воздушни особини. Директна машинска сеидба се врши на растојание 100×30 cm, а во гнездо на 120×70 cm. Во пластеничко производство салатарите се одгледуваат во густина од 20.000-22.000 растенија/ха, а мазните хибриди од  18.000-20.000 растенија/ха.

Болести

Најопасни болести после расадувањето на краставицата се пламеницата и пепелницата. Пламеницата се развива при висока релативна влажност на воздухот со ладни ноќи, кога се создава роса, што е чест случај во пластениците. Таа се развива брзо, има краток инкубационен период од 4 дена и за неколку дена може да предизвика прегорување на лисјата. Основно во нејзиното сузбивање е да се спречи нејзината појава. Во случај на нејзина појава, за да се спречи понатамошниот развој и ширење, се препорачува две едноподруго третирања во текот на два дена со некое од средствата за таа намена.

Пепелницата се развива при изменети климатски услови во пластениците, односно стаклениците (при ниска релативна влажност и големи разлики помеѓу ноќната и дневната температура. Најпрво се појавува на влезовите во стаклениците, односно пластениците.

Посебен проблем при одгледувањето на краставицата е вирусот на мозаикот (Cucumis mosaic virus), кој во случај на опаѓање на температурата под 16°C заразените растенија венат и изумираат за неколку дена. Најчести зарази настануваат при есенските посеви во стаклениците и пластениците, кога вирусот се внесува од полските посеви. Основно за негово сузбивање е да спречи неговото внесување во стаклениците и пластениците и редовно сузбивање на лисните вошки.

Автор: www.agri.mk

 

 

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