Почетна / Вести Македонија / Грозјето годинава доби двојна доза пестициди

Грозјето годинава доби двојна доза пестициди

Ако во изминатите години лозјата ги третиравме со хемија по 3-4 пати, годинава некои од нас, поради дождливото време и појавата на болести, прскаат со разни видови хемиски препарати дури и 9 пати, велат лозарите. 

– И што е најстрашно, тоа го прават стихијно, без стручни совети, а често ги зголемуваат дозите сметајќи дека така подобро ќе го заштитат својот род не обрнувајќи внимание на тоа колку ќе биде корисен еден земјоделски производ за здравјето на луѓето и дали со своите постапки ја загадуваат околината – вели лозарот Златко Стојчев од кавадаречкото село Сопот.

Професорот по стручни предмети во средното земјоделско шумарско училиште „Ѓорче Петров“ од Kавадарци, Благоја Мишковски, потврди дека во нормална година винските сорти грозје со хемија се третираат до 5 пати. Годинава некои од лозарите ги третирале плантажите со пестициди и до 9 пати плашејќи се од штети од болести. 

– Многу се грешеше при заштитата на виновата лоза оваа година. Речиси сите лозари ги третираа лозјата со зголемени дози пестициди, половина од нив не веруваат дека пропишаните дози може да ги уништат болестите. Воопшто не размислувајќи дека, од една страна, тоа им е дополнителен трошок, но и двојно отров. Во некои лозја колку повеќе се прскаше против пламеница, толку повеќе таа се ширеше во насадот. Токму поради тоа, некои отидоа дотаму што се прашуваат дали можеби заедно со одреден пестицид понекогаш може да се стават и бавни од болеста за да се држат во зависност земјоделците и да прскаат с` повеќе. Тоа се шпекулации што не се проверени, но факт е дека веќе одиме во амбис. Ова нема крај, с` повеќе се прска, а с` повеќе има болести. С` повеќе ќе прскаме, ќе се труеме и ќе ја загадуваме околината – нагласи Мишковски. 

Нелегални препарати

Според него, има опасност од прекумерна употреба на пестициди оти можно е да се контаминира земјоделското производство и околината. 

– Наводно хемиските состојки се разградуваат, но сепак отров си е отров. Минатото и историјата на пестицидите покажуваат дека не е секогаш така. Една група инсектициди во минатото царуваше неколку децении во светското земјоделство и ги уништуваше безмалку сите инсекти, а потоа се утврди дека не само што не се разградува во целост, туку имала последици врз целиот синџир на исхрана во природата. Ме плаши кога ќе слушнам дека под рака може да се најдат нелегално увезени отрови од прва категорија кои се користат во земјоделството, а се забранети. А лично сметам дека и за некои нови пестициди недоволно се знае колку се штетни за здравјето на луѓето и околината – вели Мишковски.

Од Институтот за хемија при Природно-математичкиот факултет во Скопје потврдија дека поради сложеноста, кај нас не се мерело присуството на пестициди во воздухот. 

– Многу малку се вршени анализи за присуство на пестициди во Македонија. Првите систематски испитувања се направени во рамките на еден проект на ЕУ како донација на Министерството за животна средина со учество на странски и наши експерти. Тие анализи покажаа присуство на пестициди во водите и седиментите од реките во вардарскиот слив. Периодот на разградување на некои од нив може да биде 50, па и 100 години. На пример, ДДТ, кој беше користен за уништување на комарците против маларијата во педесеттите години, с` уште е присутен во Македонија во водите и седиментите на реките, па дури и во некои седименти во близина на реките. Тоа е потврдено во целата земја. Особено таму каде што имаше мочуришта и тие беа третирани со големо количество со овој пестицид, а дополнително е утврдено дека тој е токсичен и канцероген – објаснува д-р Трајче Стафилов, професор на ПМФ во Скопје.

Третирањето услов за субвенции

По долгогодишни употреби, се покажало дека голем број пестициди што дале многу позитивни ефекти во земјоделството, се неверојатно токсични и канцерогени. Тие биле забранети веднаш штом било утврдено дека се штетни за луѓето и покрај ефикасноста во заштитата на насадите. 

– Но, тие не се уништуваат така лесно, ги има насекаде во животната средина. Ако ги имате спакувани, ќе ги уништите, ќе ги спалите во печки под контрола, но тешко е кога ги имате во природата – вели професорот Стафилов. 

Тој информира дека немаат вршено систематско испитување на загаденоста на тиквешката почва со пестициди. 

Kонсултиравме и истакнати енолози кои се децидни дека мора да обезбедиме производи со што помалку пестициди, тоа што светот с` повеќе го бара. 

– Тоа ќе се постигне со поголема едукација на земјоделците за да нема непотребно фрлање препарати за заштита. Оти најголемата штета е контаминираноста на еден производ. Да не ни се случува повторно да ни биде вратено грозје поради присуство на недозволиви количества пестициди – велат тие. 

Стручњаците апелираат профитот да не е пред здравјето и екологијата. Затоа, сметаат, научните истражувања да се насочат кон селекционирање поотпорни сорти винови лози што би се саделе во иднина, а кои помалку се прскаат или воопшто не се прскаат.

Ставот на Министерството за земјоделство за ова прашање е дека земјоделците треба да го почитуваат законот и да ги користат само дозволените пестициди за употреба и тоа во пропишаните дози. Ова во иднина ќе биде услов за земјоделецот да докаже дека спроведувал добра земјоделска практика и да добие субвенции. 

Да се почитуваат законот и пропишаните дози, велат и трговци со пестициди кои ги консултиравме. Медицински лица потврдуваат дека се случувало лекарска помош да побараат лица што не се заштитиле додека третирале со пестициди. Некои носат и маски за да се заштитат, а заштита ни препорачаа и нам додека ги правевме овие фотографии.

Светлана Дарудова 

Отровите не треба да бидат табу-тема

Пестицидите не треба да бидат табу-тема, вели градоначалникот на Kавадарци Александар Панов. 

– Не на еден, туку на повеќето препарати кои и јас лично сум ги користел има ознака за голема токсичност. Мислам дека постои опасност од загадување со пестициди во регионот, од кои некои се дури и забранети поради високата токсичност – вели Панов.

 

Алармот е вклучен

Роберто Паризов од еколошкото друштво „Еко живот“ од Kавадарци нагласува дека алармот е вклучен и дека земјоделците треба да си стават прст на главата и да сфатат дека со прекумерна употреба на пестициди губиме сите.

Потребно е сите да се свртиме кон поздраво земјоделско производство и да го ставиме здравјето пред парите – дециден е Паризов.

Извор: dnevnik.mk

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