Почетна / Цвеќарство / Болести кај циклама (Cyclamen spp.)

Болести кај циклама (Cyclamen spp.)

1.Botrytis- сиво гниење

Botrytis cinereaпредизвикува гниење на цветовите и листовите. Сите заболени делови се прекриени со сива прекривка (од мицелиите на габата), подоцна се сушат и стануваа сиво- кафени.


Контрола: Намалување на влагата под 85%, вентилација на просторот, фунгициди.


Сл.1 Циклама заболена од Botrytis cinerea

2. Fusarium фузариозно венење

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis предизвикува болест на подземните и надземните делови. Првите симптоми се јавуваат на младите растенија (2-6 листови), со промена на бојата на листовите во жолта. Промената започнува од лисната дршка накај врвот на листот  и тоа и вертикално и хоризонтално.

Во младите корења настанува промена на васкуларното ткиво. Во почетокот нема видливи симптоми, но подоцна внатрешноста на корењата е кафена или црна.

Во луковиците внатрешноста е исто така кафена или црна. Симптомите не се забележуваат се до цветањето кога настанува венење.

Контрола: садење во стерилен супстрат и стерилизација на саксиите.


Сл.2 Подземни делови зафатени од Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis


Сл.3 Фузариозно венење

 3.Мек гнилеж

Erwinia carotovora ја предизвикува најчестата болест кај цикламата. Често прв видлив симптом е венење на растението. Обично луковиците се претворени во кашеста мека маса, а коренот останува непроменет. Понекогаш се зафатени и лисните дршки кои овенуваат и паѓаат. Гниењето се шири за време на топлите летни месеци.

Контрола: треба да се обрне внимание при наводнувањето поради тоа што оваа бактерија се пренесува преку водата. Само што ќе се открие болеста тоа растение треба да се отстрани. При садењето треба да се користи стерилен супстрат и за време на одгледувањето потребна е добра вентилација.


Сл.4 Мек гнилеж предизвикан од Erwinia carotovora

 4.Пегавост на цветовите

Botrytis cinereaпредизвикува пеги на латиците. Кај розовите вариетети во почетокот центарот на пегите е во нормална боја, подоцна станува исполнет со вода, темен и некротичен. Кај белите вариетети центарот е некротичен, а надворешниот дел е исполнет со вода.

Контрола: добра вентилација, контрола на влагата и топлината, отстранување на заболените растенија.


Сл.5 Пегавост на цветовите предизвикано од Botrytis cinerea

 5.Лисна пегавост

Ramularia, Phyllosticta spp.– делумна дефолиација


Сл.6 Растение заболено од Ramularia

6.Лисна закржлавеност

Ramularia cyclaminicolaпредизвикува закржлавеност на растенијата, листовите се мали и жолти, лисните дршки и цветоносните стебла се пократки од нормално и цветовите карактеристично се отвораат под листовите. На местата на инфекција во луковиците се наоѓаат црвенкасто- кафени некротирани површини.

Контрола:  садење во стерилен супстрат, фунгициди.

Автор: www.agri.mk

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