Почетна / Градинарство / Берба и чување на кромид (Allium cepa)

Берба и чување на кромид (Allium cepa)

Кромидот треба да се бере кога ќе полегнат 30% од растенијата. Растенијата треба да се остават на нива во тенок слој за да се просушат, да ги исцрпат хранливите материи од листовите и стеблото и да депонираат во главиците, како и да формираат поголем број на суви лушпи.

Овој процес зависно од времето може да потрае 5-7 дена. Кромидот обично се бере во јули и август. Производството од арпаџик е спремно за берба 20 дена порано за разлика од производството од директна сеидба. Бербата од големите парцели се извршува машински, додека од малите површини се бере рачно и се плетат венци, тоа е добар начин кромидот да се просуши и да дозрее.

Во главицата се одвиваат многубројни биохемиски и физиолошки процеси, од кои најважни се дишење и ‘ртење. Овие просеци имаа различни ефекти врз квалитетот на кромидот како намалување на тежината на главиците, губење на шеќери, намалување на содржината на суви материи и хранливата вредност, зголемување на температурата во складиштето и како последица на тоа се јавува гниење.

Успешното чување на кромидот зависи од повеќе фактори, од состојбата на луковиците, температурата и влажноста на воздухот, сортата и содржината на суви материи. Главиците добиени од растенија заболени од пламеница содржат мицелии од габата кои со тек на чување може да се прошират на здравите главици и да предизвикаат гниење. Главиците добиени со директна сеидба обично се помалку заболени  и се попогодни за чување. Тоа е предноста на кромидот добиен од семе, а недостаток е помалата содржина на суви материи околу 2%.

Оптимални услови за чување на кромидот се температура на воздухот во складиштето 0⁰С, релативна влажност на воздухот околу 85% и задолжителна вентилација за да се намали концентрацијата на СО2 и вода кои се производи на дишењето на кромидот.

Постои и технологија за досушување и чување на кромидот во специјални складишта. Главиците во нив се чуваат во боксови со решеткаст под и голем капацитет (80-120 t). кромидот во нив се досушува со топол воздух од 45⁰С во времетраење од 24-48 часа. Потоа кромидот се чува во оптимални услови.

Автор: www.agri.mk

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